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Design Topology Overview
Not all Voltage Stabiliser solutions are designed or built the same!
For the lay person, differentiating between the numerous suppliers and various design technologies utilised to deliver voltage stabilisation can often be a daunting task and it is not always clear as to which technology is best for a particular application.
As one of the world’s leading specialist ‘Quality’ manufacturers and suppliers of Voltage Stabilisers and associated Power Line Conditioning solutions we offer probably the widest choice and cross section of alternative design types and models.
Below we discuss the various design topologies available in today’s market and highlight the advantages, disadvantages and most appropriate application for each topology
Design OverviewBeing able to accommodate an input voltage swing of in excess of 40%, whilst still capable of delivering accuracy on the output of 1% or better, the Servo Electronic design principle comprises a transformer having its secondary winding connected between the mains supply and the load. The primary voltage is automatically controlled through a servo motor driven variable transformer, thereby ensuring a continuous, smooth and very stable output voltage.A solid state Servo-Amplifier continuously monitors the output voltage of the stabiliser. Should, due to an incoming voltage or load current change, the output voltage deviate from the required value, the Amplifier sensor instructs the servo motor to rotate the brush-gear on the variable transformer to correct the output for the deviation. The speed of detection and actions of the servo system are exceptionally fast, with controlled motor deceleration to minimise any possibility of overshoot.
Size and weight advantages over other methods of stabilisation
Fast speed of response to voltage changes – ideal for 95% of all applications
Very competitively priced
Negligible output waveform distortion
Not Frequency dependent
Will attenuate voltage spikes (if required)
Unaffected by load or power factor changes
Low cost of ownership with ease of serviceability
Endurable with long life expectancy
Moving parts requiring a certain amount of limited maintenance
Lower speed of response in comparison to the more costly solid state design topology solutions
By far our most popular offering, being an ideal cost efficient design solution for 95% of all applications.Over the last 25 years our Servo Electronic ranges have been tried, tested and extensively proven in all corners of the world – including some of the harshest and most remote power environments on this planet.In recent times with advances in semi-conductor, motor and digital technologies, our development engineers have considerably enhanced the performance of the basic design principle. Our latest Servo Electronic generation of solutions deliver the most reliable, fastest acting, highly stable and most energy efficient operation seen in the market today.
Design OverviewMagnetic Induction based solutions, utilise a simple, yet highly reliable, rotor and stator design principle to increase or reduce the magnitude of the voltage in a series transformer winding, thereby delivering and maintaining a constant output voltage. The arrangement is similar to a motor, except that the rotor does not rotate continuously. Its maximum rotation is only 130 degrees.The magnetic coupling between the rotor (the shunt winding) and stator (series winding) will cause the magnitude of the voltage in the series winding to increase or decrease, depending on the angle or position of the rotor to the stator. For example, when the input voltage drops, the rotor will rotate clockwise to such an angle to make up for the drop in voltage, rotating anti-clockwise to correct for a high voltage.
Brushless - virtually Maintenance Free with no contact wear or requirement for carbon brush replacement.
Highly reliable, efficient and robust design – ideal for the tougher style industrial applications
Oil Cooling Option - delivers smaller physical size and makes the topology ideal for applications in more humid environments
Usually less price competitive when compared to servo electronic design based systems
Being brushless in nature, the design principle is highly robust and virtually maintenance free making it ideal for more demanding higher rated three phase industrial applications.
Sinalda UK Three Phase Magnetic Induction based Solutions
Design OverviewThis is a similar circuit arrangement to the Servo Design method of Voltage Stabilisation except that Triacs or Thyristors (dependent upon Stabiliser capacity) are used to select the appropriate voltage from a series of voltage taps on a transformer to feed the primary of a Buck/Boost Transformer instead of using a motor-driven Variable Transformer.By using microprocessor control the Triacs / Thyristors can be switched at the zero- crossover point of the voltage waveform thus eradicating any switching distortion caused by phase-controlled devices. Dependent upon the input voltage window that needs to be controlled output voltage accuracies of 1% can be achieved.Output Voltage control is achieved by sequential steps to provide a similar control to that of the motorised Variable Transformer servo system.
Not restricted in Stabiliser Capacity as there is no requirement for large motorised Variable Transformers.
Solid State - no moving parts, virtually maintenance-free.
Low/simple maintenance - just fans and general cleaning required.
Cost-effective especially on larger kVA ratings.
Negligible Output Waveform Distortion.
Output Voltage accuracy deteriorates to ±5% on large input voltage swings (>±30%)
Highly cost-effective solution for Voltage Stabilisers 100kVA and above.
Design OverviewAn ‘Aiding’ and ‘Opposing’ Magnetic Amplifier is connected across the main transformer to either increase or reduce the input voltage should it go high or low. This is achieved by increasing or reducing the magnetic inductance in the two cores. The Control Amplifier Sensor will detect the input fluctuations and then inject a DC current into the two respective amplifiers to either increase or reduce its inductance.Reducing the inductance will increase or reduce the output voltage and vice versa. The Sensing Amplifier monitors the output voltage continuously and automatically adjusts the DC currents through the control coils, thereby ensuring that the output voltage is kept constant.The Filter, in conjunction with the inductance of the magnetic core, forms an extremely effective means of suppressing high energy spikes and other mains borne noise.
Solid State – with no moving parts – virtually Maintenance Free
Ultra-fast speed of response to voltage changes
Extremely accurate output voltage - accuracy better than 1%, typically 0.5%
Less price competitive when compared to servo electronic design based systems
High weight to kVA ratio compared to servo electronic designs
Being a considerably more pricey design topology when compared to our more popular ranges of Servo Electronic and Magnetic Induction based solutions, Saturable Reactor based systems are primarily intended for truly ‘Mission Critical’ applications where a solid state solution is required and the load equipment is ultra-sensitive to the vagaries of the incoming mains supply and demands a highly stable and clean supply voltage - eg. Laboratory and testing equipment and ‘High-Tech’ manufacturing processes.
Sinalda UK Saturable Reactor based Solutions
Given the extremely high cost of these type Stabilisers, and given the advances made in recent years in the design of Static Electronic solutions, Sinalda UK no longer offers Saturable Reactor based solutions.
Design OverviewFerro-Resonant / Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) based solutions, utilise a tank circuit composed of a high-voltage resonant winding and a capacitor to produce a constant output voltage whilst supporting a varying load current - even in situations where the input voltage varies widely.The circuit has a primary on one side of a magnet shunt and tuned circuit coil and a secondary on the other side. Voltage regulation is achieved through the magnetic saturation in the section around the secondary.The design offers excellent isolation – delivering exceptional transient voltage surge suppression and short-circuit protection.
High speed of response to voltage changes
Highly dependable Output voltage - voltage does not collapse on high overload or severe input voltage drop
Solid State - No moving parts and virtually maintenance free.
Competitively priced - especially for ratings of 5 kVA or below, where the nominal input voltage can vary widely
Inherent ride-through capability - ensuring that in the event of a short break of up to 3 milli-seconds in duration output is maintained.
Highly reliable -with extremely high MTBF performance
Not generally price competitive in ratings above 10 kVA
High weight to kVA ratio compared to servo electronic designs
Frequency Dependent - not ideal for applications where severe frequency variations are an issue
Not the quietest - due to magnetostriction there is a tendency for slight transformer hum and a result it is normally best practice not to install too close an employee’s workstation or audio recording equipment
Highly reliable and endurable. Ideal ‘install and forget’ solution for severe environments where the input voltage varies widely.
Sinalda UK CVT based Solutions
We no longer include CVT based systems in our standard product offering, however, we can supply to specific requirements on special request.